A nuclear electromagnetic pulse is also known as EMP or NEMP is a burst of electromagnetic radiation created by nuclear explosion. Due to the advancement in technology and the increase in terrorism there are weapons that have been designed and built to cause the effects of electromagnetic burst.These burst are invisible they occur naturally in nature during a lightning strike and hence cause electrical disruptions nearby. The risk associated with EMP attack include nationwide blackout of the electric power grid, and a shutdown of critical infrastructure reliant on the grid.
There are various factors that cause nuclear electromagnetic pulse burst including detonation of a nuclear bomb, solar flare, a device intended to cause an EMP, close lightning stroke and finally a massive powerline short circuit. Nuclear explosion is a very rare occurrence unless set up for terrorist attacks. Solar flare is common occurrence but one that does damage is very rare. Some of electrical appliances can cause electromagnetic burst to be in excess they include computers and computer equipments, appliances containing microprocessors, automobile electronic ignition, power fuses, TV cameras, computer disks among others. There are some other equipments that are likely to be immune to EMP unless it is very strong they include equipments stored inside metal cases, automobiles with no semiconductor devices, mechanical equipments, phonograph records, compact disk among many others.
Electricity is the most reliable source of energy as compared to other energy source it is used in every industry communication, security, food processing production and preservation in both commercial and domestic sector. There are various ways in which one should prepare for nuclear magnetic burst this is a time where there is blackout hence the electrical energy is not available hence repairing non electrical equipment is of importance starting with the cook the radio battery , iron box and others. A void the use of semiconductors where possible, If semiconductors are used make sure they are rated to maximum voltages and currents at least ten times . Use large ferrite beads on power wiring, provide battery backup power for essential equipments. Use of faraday cage or bag this is any conductive structure that protects its content from electricity pulses. The burst can lead to loss of network also the mobile phones may go off due to this reason it is advisable to use other devices to communicate an example use of walkie talkie and CB radios. Make your own electricity power source an example the use of solar panels, biogas, wind turbine generator among others. To avoid food shortage due to the stoppage of production process of food it is advisable to plant food crops.
Various precautions should be taken to prevent damage due to EMP including shield wiring connected to sensitive equipments or enclose wiring in metal conguits, fuse long wires and cables, increase the current carrying capacity of the building ground.